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Question: I NEED FULL WORKOUT 1. In peas, the round allele is dominant to the wrinkled allele. A plant wit…

I NEED FULL WORKOUT

1. In peas, the round allele is
dominant to the wrinkled allele. A plant with round peas is crossed
to a plant with wrinkled peas, and all of the resulting plants have
round peas. What is the most likely genotypes of the parents in
this cross?

A.        RR × rr

B.        RR × Rr

C.        Rr ×
rr

D.        Rr × Rr

E.         rr ×
rr

2. How many possible gametes can be
produced by a short plant with yellow, round peas and pink flowers
that is heterozygous at each of the four genes that control these
traits (YyRrSsPp)?

A.        3

B.        6

C.        8

D.        10

E.         16

3. A couple has two children. Their
second child has cystic fibrosis, a rare autosomal recessive
disease. What is the probability that their first child (who does
not have the disease) is not a carrier?

0

1/4

1/3

1/2

2/3

5.         A couple has
four children. What is the probability that they would have four
boys?

A) 1/2

B) 1/4

C) 1/8

D) 1/16

E) 1/32

6.
        A P value is a
quantitative expression of the probability that the results of
another experiment of the same size and structure will deviate
as much or more from expected results by chance
. The greater
the difference between observed and expected results of an
experiment,

A) the lower the χ2 value and the lower the P
value.

B) the greater the χ2 value and the greater the P
value.

C) the greater the χ2 value and the lower the P
value.

D) the lower the χ2 value and the greater the P
value.

E) the greater the χ2 value; but the P value is
unaffected.

7.         In a newly
discovered plant, the tall allele is dominant over the short allele
for the gene controlling plant height. If a tall plant is crossed
to a tall plant, most of the resulting plants are tall and a few
are short. What is the genotype of the parents in this cross?

A.Tt x Tt

B.TT x Tt

C.Tt x tt

D.TT x tt

E.   tt x tt

8. Wild-type Drosophila have
red eyes, but it is possible to isolate mutants that have different
eye colors. The chart below summarizes the results of crosses
between flies with different eye colors.

+ = wildtype phenotype (= red eyes)

–   = non-wildtype phenotype

Mutant

White

garnet

ruby

vermillion

cherry

coral

apricot

buff

White

+

+

+

Garnet

+

+

+

+

+

+

Ruby

+

+

+

+

+

Vermillion

+

+

+

+

Cherry

Coral

Apricot

Buff

carnation

Based on the chart, how many eye-color
mutants have mutations in the SAME gene as the white mutant?
(Assume that all mutant alleles are recessive.)

A.       2

B.        3

C.        4

D.       7

9.
       What type of allele is often
detected as a missing panel in the Punnett Square, such that one
class of expected progeny is missing?

A) dominant negative allele

B) temperature-sensitive allele

C) lethal allele

D) partial dominance

E) incomplete penetrance

10.     
Independent assortment predicts a 9:3:3:1 ratio with four different
phenotypes in the F2 progeny. If the alleles are epistatic
(i.e., if they interact), what would you predict?

A) more than four phenotypes

B) fewer than four phenotypes

C) heterozygotes with a novel
phenotype between the dominant and recessive homozygotes

D) 1/3 of the progeny with the dominant phenotypes and 2/3
recessive

E) no change in the 9:3:3:1 ratio

11. You suspect that two genes
interact with one another to determine the product of a pathway you
are studying. You cross two pure breeding plants—one with white
flowers and one with pink—to make F1 individuals that have blue
flowers. You cross the F1 generation and observe the following
numbers of individuals with different phenotypes:

                                   
Number of individuals Phenotype

                                               
91                               
Blue

                                               
30                               
Pink

                                               
39                               
White

12.   Do you expect that
genes A and B will interact with one another?

Yes

No

Insufficient information to determine

13. What phenotype ratio would you
expect in offspring produced by crossing AaBb parents?

           
A.        9:3:3:1 (blue : green
: yellow : white)

           
B.        9:3:4 (blue : green :
white)

           
C.        9:7 (blue : white)

           
D.        15:1 (blue :
white)

14.       How
can haplosufficiency explain dominance of an allele that
codes for a functional protein over a null (loss of function)
allele?

A)       
a single functional copy of the gene produces sufficient
gene product for normal biological function

B)       
a single functional copy of the gene produces insufficient
gene product for normal biological function

C)       
the null allele produces a product that interferes with proper
function of the normal allele

D)       
the null allele produces a product that does not interfere with
proper function of the normal allele

E)       
the null allele rapidly mutates to reacquire normal
functionality

15.       In
a plant species with genes A and B, you have
isolated recessive mutant alleles at each locus, which you call
a and b. You would like to know whether these two
genes are linked. To test this hypothesis, you obtain an individual
that is heterozygous at both genes (AB/ab) and perform a
test cross. Which results would be most consistent with these loci
being tightly linked? (Results are counts of the numbers of
offspring from the testcross.)

A.                   
Ab/ab 390

                       
aB/ab   410

                       
AB/ab   350    

                       
ab/ab   420     

B.      
            
Ab/ab   80

                       
aB/ab   73

                       
AB/ab   760    

                       
ab/ab   754

C.                   
Ab/ab 700

                       
aB/ab   695

                       
AB/ab   
56     

                       
ab/ab   59

D.                   
Ab/ab
400

                       
aB/ab   65

                       
AB/ab   
50     

                       
ab/ab   659

16.       Syntenic genes can
assort independently when

A) they are very close together on a chromosome.

B) they are located on different chromosomes.

C) crossing over occurs rarely between the genes.

D) they are far apart on a
chromosome and crossing over occurs frequently between the
genes.

E) they are far apart on a
chromosome and crossing over occurs very rarely between the
genes.

17.       The alleles of linked
genes tend to

A) segregate together more often than expected by random
assortment

B) assort independently.

C) be mutated more often than unlinked genes.

D) experience a higher rate of crossing over.

E) assort independently and show a higher rate of crossing
over.

18.       If you know that the
frequency of recombination between genes X and Y
is 34% and between X and Z is 25%, can you
predict the order of the three genes?

A) Yes; the order is X-Z-Y.

B) Yes; the order is X-Y-Z.

C) Yes; the order is Z-X-Y.

D) No; based on this data alone, the order could be
Z-Y-X or X-Y-Z.

E) No; based on this data alone, the order could be
X-Z-Y or Z-X-Y.

Question 19 – 20.
       You have performed the
following dihybrid cross in Drosophila using the black
body color (b) and vestigial wing (vg) mutations. The b+
(grey body) and vg+ (normal wing) are dominant wild type
alleles.   These genes are autosomal.

Female ♀   b+ vg+/b vg     × male
♂ b vg/b vg

Progeny:

Phenotype                                         
# of Progeny

Grey body normal
wing                     
965

Black body vestigial
wing                  
944

Grey body vestigial
wing                   
208

Black body normal
wing                    
195

19.      
Assuming linkage between black and vestigial, the
estimated recombination frequency would be:

0.17

0.09

0.82

1.00

0.50

20.      
What key test could you use to determine whether the observed
offspring frequencies deviate from those expected by chance
alone?

           
A)        Pascal’s triangle

           
B)        The product rule

           
C)        The Chi-square
2) test

           
D)        The law of random
assortment

E)        The sum rule

21. In a genome wide association
study (GWAS) designed to map the gene(s) that control height you
divide subjects into a group of 1000 who are all more than seven
feet tall and a control group of 1000 people of average height. You
find the following associations between two genetic markers and the
height trait:

Tall group

Control group

Marker 1

Allele A

20%

50%

Allele T

80%

50%

Marker 2

Allele G

15%

15%

Allele C

85%

85%

What is your best guess for which
marker is more closely linked to a gene that influences height?

A)      Marker 1

B)      Marker 2  

22. Two pure breeding parents
produce red and white flowers. They are crossed and the F1 produces
pink flowers. When the F1 are selfed to produce the F2, nine
distinct classes of pigmentation are present among F2 individuals.
What is your best guess of the minimum number of genes that
underlie flower pigmentation in this species?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

E. 6

23.       In
a quantitative genetic experiment you identify two genes that
confer bands of color on the back of a fly. At each gene, a
dominant allele causes one band of color. If flies that are
heterozygous at both loci are crossed, what ratio of offspring do
you expect in each phenotype (i.e., number of color bands) class?
(answer options are given from lowest to highest band number)

A)        1:1:1:1:1

B)        1:2:2:2:1

C)        1:4:6:4:1

D)        4:4:4:4:4

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