List and briefly describe the environmental relevance (causes pollution or used to remove pollution) of each type of microorganisms in the phylogenetic tree. Bacteria would be one type. The conversion of ammonium to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria is shown by the following equation. NH^-_4 + 2O_2 —————- NO^-_3 + H_2O + 2H^+ a. How much oxygen is needed to oxidize one mg of nitrogen (in ammonium form to nitrate form) in the water? b. How many moles of acid (H^+) is produced per mole of N oxidized? How many grams of lactose would you use to make 2 liters of a 100 mM lactose solution? What would be the lactose concentration of the solution (in mg/L)? What would be the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the liquid (in mg C/L)? (Need to find Lactose formula from a reference). A microbial culture is used to degrade wastewater containing organic matter (C_6H_12O_6) in the effluent of an industrial complex according to the following reaction: C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2 ———————— = 6 CO_2 + 6 H_2O a. Based on the reaction stoichiometry, how much air (in kg) would need to be supplied for each pound of organic matter degraded? Be sure to remember that oxygen is just a component of air (23% of air) and there are other molecules present in air. b. Suppose the wastewater treatment plant needs to degrade 750 mg/L of organic matter in a liquid flow of 35,000 L/day and that oxygen is transferred to water at a 55% efficiency. How much air would be required daily (in kg air/day)? DNA and RNA are two important macromolecules of cells. Answer the following regarding the two. a. What role do each of them play in a cell? b. What are the main differences between the two? c. Discuss the relative content of each in a cell and why one is significantly higher than the other.