Keywords: employment gender gap, gender problems employment
Even though Men and Woman constantly work and compete in this society for recognition and rewards. Nowadays Woman is given equal opportunities in every profession from Business to Defense. But there is an historical saying that Men are stronger and smatter than Woman, Which is true to some extinct but when we compare today’s world we say that its totally disagreeable statement. In every profession woman are showing there talent and hard work and making others praise them. Recently in a study conducted by an UK University there are few things that should be noted, Men are 30-40% stronger than Woman and Woman are 10% more smatter than Men (Sunderland University, 2007).
Today we can see that Customer Service and Other Office oriented jobs are mainly dominated by woman, in which aggression levels are not accepted, where as Engineering and Construction oriented jobs are dominated by Man. By this we can understand that Men are more aggressive than Woman. Governments all around the world actively encouraged woman to take part in country development expect some Gulf countries where woman are only allowed to work in offices but not in other sectors. Woman are excelling now a days in every profession, they are leading countries and business, Recently Germany elected its first woman president and companies like Pepsi Co. and other Fortune 500 are managed by Woman CEO’s. Women are made as brand ambassadors for many International brands like Cannon, Sony etc…
But still in some parts of the world women are criticized and not able to perform, the recent assassination of former and the first women president of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto, which shocked the entire world (New York Times, 2008). Many influential women around the world are assassinated for dominating men. Although many western countries already started respecting women in every action they perform. Social relationships of women with men are weakening resulting divorces. Domestic violence against women in the Western countries like United States increased a lot since 1980’s. Women are sexually abused by Men, making them restricted to some part of the society. Statistics prove that three out of every four women were subject to abuse: 9% of which was done by ex-husbands, 35% by boyfriends and 32% by ex-boyfriends (Domestic Violence-Report of an Inter-Agency Working Party, 1992), Governments passed strict rules even death sentence in Republic of China for abusing women. Facing all these problems still women are equally competing with men in all areas. Some of the most influential women in the world are Oprah, Hillary, Mother Theresa, Benazir Bhutto, Indira Ghandi, Angelina Jolie, and many others.
The scope of this research is whether women can truly be successful in the world dominated by men, in which I studied various topics on women development which are explained below. I explained the various stages of women development during last century. In current situations women are given equal opportunities with men, but can this really done? The basic idea of this research is women are still striving over the domination of men. I examined many Surveys, Interviews, and Observations to include in this project, which claims the result. There are some factors which prove the fact.
The most important social changes for woman development are identified as: Gender Equality around the world makes a clear description of the women development. Resource Availability to women worker to prove them in the society, Schemes launched by Governments to Women empowerment and the Advertising Media interference to the issue like rating top influential women in the world bought some radical changes in the society.
When I Studied the Recent Survey on Women’s Empowerment and Development I found that in Globalizing world Men and Women are given equal gender rights. Still, the violence towards women is an epidemic – Against which no country in immune. Women’s Empowerment is different in different countries; we can take an example of Developed, Developing and Underdeveloped Countries. The women in Developed countries seem to assign more rights and freedom than the developing and underdeveloped countries. People in western countries honor women for there excellence and courage, but in some Gulf, African and Asian countries they are not able to even go out of their homes.
During last Iran war thousands of women are made homeless and widows, many Western NGO (Non Profit Organizations) came forward to help the disadvantaged people by providing some work under Government schemes. In a Recent Public Poll on Women rights conducted by World Public Opinion 89% of Mexican said it’s very important for women to have equal rights as of men, where as 77% of United States people said it’s very important and the average stands at 59%. The majority of the people around the world are supporting equal rights (World Public Opinion, March 6th 2008). United Nations (UN) started participating actively around the world for women development. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 16 countries 14 countries responded in favor of UN in actively participating for women development, however in Egypt
Most of those polled (70%) think the United Nations should not get involved in efforts to improve women’s rights and among the Palestinians views are evenly divided.
On average, 64 percent approve of UN efforts to further the rights of women, while 28 percent say this would be improper interference. (World Public Opinion, March 6th 2008).
In 2004 The OECD was subsequently asked to investigate the barriers for women in academic and non-academic research careers in New Zealand. The reports say that women has higher rate of enrollment in higher education with 9.4% where as men as 8.2% (OECD and Ministry of Research Science and Technology, Feb10, 2005). By which we can easily understand women are stepping an ahead of men in scientific careers. When we compare the turnover rate of Women with Men here is the result of the survey conducted in 2004 for African Women Development, since 2000, the turnover rate for women has been higher than the rate for men. Turnover for female public servants increased from 12% in 2000 to 13% in 2004. The turnover rate for male public servants remained unchanged over this period (at 10%). This Survey also proved a Psychological factor which is making women focus on there development is the family responsibility. Overall, 52% of women earned less than $40,000 (compared with 33% of men) and 5% earned more than $80,000 (compared with 12% of men). The pay gap between the median salary for female and male public servants decreased between 2000 and 2004, from 17% to 16%. Women are reaching new heights, attaining growth and development. The migration of women has always been an important component of international migration. As of 2000, 49 per cent of all international migrants were women or girls, and the proportion of females among international migrants had reached 51 percent in more developed regions. (2004-World Survey on the Role of Women in Development, Conducted by UNESCO), Even though women are facing more troubles than man have, these factors all lead to the destruction of social relationships between man and woman making a self competing world.
When I Studied a Recent survey on Women Rights here is what I like to present Globalization is a multi-dimensional process of economic, political, cultural, and ideological change. It has had a mixed impact on women’s rights. On the one hand, it has led to increasing violations of women’s economic, political, and cultural rights in large measure due to the withering away of the welfarist/developmentalist state, the feminization of poverty, the expansion of religious fundamentalisms, and new forms of militarism and conflict. It has been noted by many international women’s organizations, for example, that the new trade agreements contravene the spirit and often the letter of international conventions on human rights, labor rights, and women’s rights. On the other hand, aspects of globalization have provided women with increasing opportunities to work in solidarity at national, regional, and international levels to demand their rights. UNSECO is actively working on the implementation of advanced Human Rights which mainly focus on contribution on Women security and welfare.
The women are seeking equal work culture in organizations, which are now only enjoyed by men. In many companies the women as less pay rates when compared to men, where as security of a women working in a company is less. World Jurisdiction has ample of cases registered on sexual harassment on women.
When I made a Research on Recognition of Women in the society Women all around the globe are respected and treated as important source of development and existence of human mankind. International Women’s Day (IWD) is observed on March 8th – Which is celebrated across the globe. It is a major day of global celebration for the economic, political and social achievements of women. The first IWD was observed on Feb 29th, 1909 in the United States. Many women marked there positions as the most influential persons in the world, Such as Mother Teresa who was given Woman of the Century for her service. Women proved in every area such as Polictics, Business, Adminstration, Law, Engineering etc… Women ruled nations, managed companies taking potential decesions, worked in Space and every deal as the list goes on. Countries like Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka are once ruled by princess and these countries give a lot of importance to woman. Woman in these countries serve in most influential positions in the Government. Many countries have elected women as Presidents, United States in yet to elect a Lady President. Time Magzine also reported the top most influetial woman on the planet, which is the highest recognition in the society. Women are given Nobel Lauratee for there excellence in the field of specialisation.
During an Interview with Vicki Donlan, author of Her Turn and founder of Women’s Business describes why it’s time for women to continue to step into leadership roles in America, the steps we can take to make this happen and the benefits for women AND men when more women lead. She said women are capable of leading a country like United States without any obstacles, She also stated that women all around the world are intelligent and courage’s for their development.
Indra Nooyi, CEO of Pepsi Co.: Indra was named the #1 Most Powerful Women in Business in 2006 by Fortune Magazine. As President and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo, she is the highest ranking Woman in corporate America. She’s helped engineer over $30 billion worth of deals in the past few years and is taking on the challenge of some fierce competition: a newly energized Coca-Cola campaign. She was every confident with her work and decisions she take for the one of the latest business which operates in 190 countries. She always says that every woman can do anything in life, they are equal with men. (Top Business Woman, 2006 by Fortune Magazine)
During an Interview with Michelle Crain, Director of Call center, Inc. and one of the most influential women in the business, she started that women are best in business and she said about the Women Educational Development as “A number of occupations became “professionalized” through the 19th and 20th centuries, gaining regulatory bodies, and passing laws or regulations requiring particular higher educational requirements. As women’s access to higher education was often limited, this effectively restricted women’s participation in these professionalizing occupations. For instance, women were completely forbidden access to Cambridge University until 1868, and were encumbered with a variety of restrictions until 1987 when the University adopted an equal opportunity policy.”
Beside Interviews I also observed during my Internet Research I found that women are leading the way in many countries, but in some countries they are lagging behind men. The inspiration of other women makes them to move forward and achieve new heights. For example in United States more than 65% of the women work and 12% are running business in the same way if we take Kenya only 14% of the women work, mainly devoted to Agriculture field. The Women in Countries like China, India and Other Asian Countries are developing and there is an increasing statistics of working women. Governments are taking initiatives for Women Development in these countries by launching schemes for working women. The United States Employment Law is totally in favor of women by providing same wage rates, flexible working hours and Maternity leaves. It is observed in United States that the women as better Credit Score than men. This shows that Women are constantly developing in the society.
The inspiration and Government actions women are excelling and there is lot more to do. The Women in Countries like United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and Other European Countries are fully development and in transition phase. But the Countries like India, China, Pakistan and Other Asian Countries they still developing; Governments are taking active role in Women Development and Empowerment. UN interference is also making them to work on this issue. Reports and Surveys say that Women in North Korea, Kenya and other African Countries are still facing lot of problems, and there is no aid to rescue them.
When I made an Internet Research Observation the Women in Developed and Developing Countries are facing sexual harassments at work environment. Governments and Companies passed strict rules against the sexual harassment on women, but the strategy didn’t change. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2004 shows that there are more than 1500 women killed in United States for Sexual Harassments. In India the working women are sexually harassed and killed, recently three cases are recorded in International companies like HP and Wipro, where Call Center Associates were sexually harassed and killed by the Drivers appointed by the companies, this made companies to take initiative in launching GPRS to the cars that are used to pick and drop women employees. The jurisdictions around the world are fully loaded with sexual harassments cases, which are yet to justify.
When I made a survey with other women on Streets about the Security on Women the Woman told that the women should develop there own security system to protect against men, by waging fight for human rights. Many activists have already started these types of fights to improve the women rights in the society. Many Women Claim that these types of sexual harassments make women mentally bind to there homes and are not able to work in the environment. Majority of the women said that we are also part of the society and should be respected and treated well is the basic point that should be noted by men.
When I made an Observation on Women in Business I found that Women are leading many International companies with motivation and high decision making skills, Men and Women equally contribute to the development of the economy. Both are now money maker and creators. UN has taken a step forward to help the women in Business by launching a Development center for Women Development, which focuses on women in Business sectors. Training programs are given to women who are interested in starting there own business.
In my Internet Research on Women in Business I found that Fortune 500 Companies are managed and operated by many women. For example: Indra Nooyi. The present CEO of Pepsi Co. and another example: The founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics created a business that has helped some half a million women fulfills their dreams of business ownership. A best-selling author and powerful motivational speaker, Lifetime Television named her the Most Outstanding Woman in Business in the 20th Century. Debbi Fields is one of the greatest Women Entrepreneur she at age of 20, Debbi Fields was a housewife with no business experience, but a great chocolate chip cookie recipe and a dream. Today, Mrs. Fields Cookies is one of the world’s most recognizable dessert franchises, with over 600 stores in the U.S. and ten other countries.