HISTORY OF GERMANY
In its long history, Germany has rarely been united. For most of the two millennia that Central Europe has been inhabited by German-speaking peoples, such as the Eastern Franks,
the area now called Germany was divided into hundreds of states, many quite small, including duchies, principalities, free cities, and ecclesiastical states. Not even the Romans united what is now known as Germany under one government; they managed to occupy only its southern and western portions . In A.D. 800 Charlemagne, who had been crowned Holy
Roman emperor by Pope Leo III, ruled over a territory that encompassed much of present-dayBelgium , Franc e , Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, but within a generation its existence was more symbolic than real. A modest economic recovery from 1924 to 1929 gave the Weimar Republic a brief respite. The severe social stress engendered by the Great Depression , however, swelled the vote received by extreme anti democratic parties in the election of 1930 and the two elections of 1932. The government ruled by emergency decree. In January , leading conservative politicians formed a new government with Hitler as chancellor. They intended to harness him and his party , now the country’s largest, to realize their own aim of replacing the republic with an authoritarian government. Within a few months, however, Hitler had out man euvered them and established a totalitarian regime. Only in 1945 did a military alliance of dozens of nations succeed in deposing him, and only after his regime and the nation it ruled had
committed crimes of unparalleled enormity known as the Holocaus.In World War I (1914-18), Germany’s aims were annexationist in nature and foresaw an enlarged Germany, with Belgium andPoland as vassal states and with colonies in Africa. However, Germany’s military strategy, involving a two-front war in France and Belgium in the west and Russia in the east, ultimately failed. Germany’s defeat in 1918 meant the end of the German Empire. The Treaty of Versailles, the peace settlement negotiated by the victors (Britain, France, and the United States) in 1919, imposed punitive conditions on Germany, including the loss of territory, financial reparations, and a diminished military. These conditions set the stage for World War II.
History of Germany flag
A horizontal tricolour of black, red,Â and gold. The flag of Germany is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold. The flag was first adopted as the national flag of modern Germany in 1919, during the Weimar Republic.Â Black, red and gold coLOURSÂ have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor – a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field. The Holy Roman Empire was a GermanÂ majority, multi ethnic empire in central Europe from its beginning in 962 until it was defeated by Napoleon on August 6, 1806 at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Germany was split following its defeat in the World War II and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) restored the old black-red-yellow flag on May 23, 1949. The same tricolour was also used in the communist-dominated German Democratic Republic (East Germany), although its coat of arms was added to the tricolour in 1959. The two Germanys were reunited in 1990 and Unified Germany continued using the black-red-gold flag of the West Germany. After Germany’s defeat in the First World War a republic was declared in 1919 and the black, red, and gold flag was restored. German-states that were part of the Holy Roman Empire came under French rule and several German organizations began agitations to free Germany from foreign rule and create a unified country. Prominent among them were two organizations – Lützow Free Corps and Jena Student’s League – whose members wore uniforms of black with gold and red accessories and used flags of those colors.
THE ENVIRONMENT IMPACT
Effects of climate change clearly noticeable in Germany. Federal government publishes the first monitoring report on climate impacts and adaptation.Rising temperatures, more humid winters and more frequent extreme weather events increasingly affect society in Germany. Impacts are becoming noticeable in many sectors including energy supply, agriculture and healthcare. This is the conclusion of the most comprehensive federal government report on adaptation to climate change to date. On the basis of data collected in 15 different sectors of society, the report describes the shifts caused by the changing climate, which are already becoming apparent today, as well as the counter measures that address them successfully.
In addition , increasing temperatures increase photosynthesis and other metabolic processes, until a crop type specific temperature optimum is reached. Thermophilic crops that have not reached their optimum under current conditions (e.g.
MaizeÂ ) can therefore bring higher yields under moderate warming. Moreover, higher winter temperatures decrease the risk of frost damages. However, when the optimum is surpassed, yields of all crop types decrease. Extreme temperatures can harm plants permanently.
One of the other effect of rising temperatures is the loss of organic carbon from soil due to an accelerated rate of decomposition and mineralization of organic material in agricultural soils. This loss of organic carbon decreases soil fertility and contributes to the greenhouse effect through emissions of carbon dioxide. Studies have shown that due to temperature increase by 2100, 20-30% of European soil carbon will be lost. A decrease of soil organic carbon by 40-60% is possible if climate change induced changes in crop productivity and expected land use changes are taken into account.
The soil ecosystem has many important functions. These include the regulation of material cycles, the decomposition and conversion of organic substances, the mobilisation of nutrients and filter functions. Many of these processes are highly dependent on temperature and water availability. Climate change therefore affects soil characteristics and functions.
In this country are aware to what extent irreplaceable capital values are being destroyed in German forests. 150,000 tons of timber per month are being taken as reparations. As regards immediate allied interests the adverse effects both on mining and on agriculture con- sequent on deforestation are also disregarded, and to this extent the date is being deferred when the Western Zones could pay their food bill and relieve British and American tax payers .The devastating evil of soil erosion has now also set in. Forest land plays an important part in agriculture ;it attracts rain, sucks up heavy rainfall and acts as a safeguard against both flood and drought. When the forest land is laid bare these evils appear in rotation ; heavy rainfall washes away the fertile top soil- Nature’s work of centuries being-undone-streams suddenly swell, later on to dry up, and sand is widely deposited both by flood and wind.Before the war Germany was the third largest timber importer in the world.
- Fertilizers manure
Has largely shaped political, economic, and social circumstances in their traditional uses. Subsequently, there has been a radical reshaping of environmental conditions following the development of chemically synthesized Â fertilizers. Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans all are recorded as using minerals and or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms. The use of wood ash as a field treatment became widespread. In the 1800s Humboldt recommended the use of guano.
Air pollution harms human health and the environment. In Europe, emissions of many air pollutants have decreased substantially over the past decades, resulting in improved air quality across the region. However, air pollutant concentrations are still too high, and air quality problems persist. A significant proportion of Europe’s population live in areas, especially in urban areas , where air quality standards occur. Air pollution is causing damage to human health and ecosystems. Large parts of the population do not live in a healthy climate , according to current standards. To get on to a sustainable path, Europe will have to be ambitious and go beyond current legislation.
Germans love rich, hearty cuisine, though each area of Germany has its own definition of what a traditional meal looks like.
Pork, beef, and poultry are the main varieties of meat consumed in Germany, pork being the most popular. Average annual meat consumption is 59 kg (130 lb). Among poultry, chicken is most common, although duck, goose, and turkey are also consumed. Game meats, especially boar, hare,and venison are also widely available, especially in autumn and winter. Lamb and goat are less popular. Meat is usually braised; pan-fried dishes also exist, but these recipes usually originate from France and Austria. Several cooking methods used to soften tough cuts have evolved into national specialties, including Â Sauerbraten (sour roast), involving marinating beef, horse meat or venison in a vinegar or wine vinegar mixture over several days. Pork is the most consumed meat, according to the German Food Guide. Schweinshaxe (braised pork hock) and Saumagen (pork stomach) are a couple of traditional pork dishes.
Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage, and the country is known as the birthplace of a number of beer varieties, including Pilsner, Weizenbier (wheat beer) and Alt. These beers were crafted according to Reinheitsgebot, or the “Purity Law,” a 16th-century Bavarian law that decreed that beer could only be brewed from barley, hops and water, according to NPR.
Brewers used the yeast available in the air. Brandy and schnapps are also favorite German alcoholic beverages.
Bratwurst, a form of sausage, is closely associated with German food. Cabbage, beets, and turnips are commonly incorporated into meals, as they are native to the region, and potatoes and sauerkraut are also stars of German cuisine. Vegetables are often used in s tews or vegetable soups, but are also served as side dishes. Carrots, turnips, spinach, peas, beans, broccoli and many types of cabbage are very common. Fried onions are a common addition to many meat dishes throughout the country.
Hunting is a popular sport and profession in Germany with strict but fair legislation established with respect for the environment and wildlife.
There are over 300,000 square kilometers of huntable area in the country, with almost 350,000 recorded hunters from a population of almost 90 million. The main authorities overseeing hunting and hunters are:
- The Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection
- The Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety
- The Federal Agency for Nature ConservationThe German Hunting Association
Self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface s hips or submarines.Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, an enemy vessel. Naval mines can be used offensively-to hamper enemy shipping movements or lock vessels into a harbour; or defensively-to protect friendly vessels and create “safe” zones.
Earthquakes in Germany are relatively weak but occur several times a year, some ofthem in coal mining areas where blasting sets them off. Following a 4.0 quake, attributed to mining and centered in Saarwellingen, around 1,000 demonstrators protested on 24 February 2008, demanding an end to mining work. Reportedly, the tremor knocked over chimneys and caused power outages.
Most of the quakes occur in a seismically active zone associated with the Rhine Rift Valley that extends from Basel, Switzerland, into the Benelux countries, in particular in the “Cologne Bight”.There are also earthquake zones on the northern edge of the Alps, around Lake Constance, in theVogtland, around Gera and in the Leipzig plain.
1992Â Roermond earthquake
On 13 April 1992 at 3:20 am, a 5.3 M quake with its epicentre 4 km southwest.
Tiles, chimneys and there was considerable damage to buildings. Ground shifts of up to 2 m occurred, and sand fountains in a few locations.The quake was felt as far away as Milan and London. The worst damage in Germany was in Heinsberg; in the Netherlands the area of damage extended several kilometres northwest of Roermond. Total damage costs in Germany topped 150 million DM, in the Netherlands, 170 million guilders.
Aftershocks continued until 31 May.
2009 Moers earthquake
On 24 July 2009 at 4:58 am, an earthquake with a magnitude of 3.3 M W struck in western Germany,20 km (12 mi) northwest of the city of Duisburg. The Geological Service of North Rafhteinrseh-Woceks the connection with mining confirmed by a 3.1 magnitude
2011 Koblenz earthquake
A 4.4 magnitude earthquake struck western Germany on 14 February 2011, at 13:43 local time. The earthquake epicenter was at Nassau an der Lahn, 65 km from Frankfurt am Main. There were no immediate reports of damage.
The German territory is comprised of five large river basins (the Elbe, upper Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems), three medium-scale basins in the coastal area (Eider, Schlei Trave and Warnow Peene), and small parts of the Oder and Meuse basins. Of the large river basins, only the Ems and Weser basins lie entirely within the borders of Germany. The Rhine, upper anube and Elbe are international rivers and their drainage basins have large parts outside Germany.
Overall, it can be summarized that the flood hazard in Germany increased during the last five decades, particularly due to an increased flood frequency. Changes in the flood behavior in northeast Germany are small. Most changes were detected for sites in the west, south and centre of Germany. Further, the seasonal analysis revealed larger changes for winter compared to summer.The German territory is comprised of five large river
|basins||(the Elbe, upper Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems), three medium-scale basins in the|
|coastal||area (Eider, Schlei/Trave and Warnow/Peene), and small parts of the Oder andÂ Meuse|
|basins. Of the large river basins, only the Ems and Weser basins lie entirely within||the borders|
|ofÂ Germany. The Rhine, upper Danube andÂ Elbe are international rivers and their||drainage|
|basins have large parts outside Germany.|
Germany current population is Â 80.62 million
Germany Population (LIVE)
- The current population of Germany is 80,648,653 as of Friday, March 24, 2017, based on the latest United Nations estimates.
- Germany population is equivalent to 1.07% of the world population in total
- Germany ranks number 18 in country population.
- The population density in Germany is 231 per Km2 (599 people per mi2).
- The total land area is 348,520 Km2 (134,56 sq. miles)
- 77.3 % of the population is urban (62,341,809 people in 2017)
- The median age in Germany is 46.4 years.