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The essay requires the definition of inclusion and how it defers to integration. Using quotes from authors, it will be explained how different people view inclusion and integration. Also, there will be a comparison to on both of the key terms to see how many different authors view inclusion.

Inclusion and Integration are there to help those children who have Special Needs. In simple terms they are there for the provision of the children. Yet, at the same time both of them are very different. According to the government the term Inclusion is defined as “The department for Education and Employment Green Paper (DfEE, 1997) explains that Inclusion is a process, not a fixed state…..meaning not only that pupils with education needs should wherever possible receive their education in a mainstream school, but also that they should join fully with their peers in the curriculum and life of the school.”

Yet in contrast to Inclusion, Integration is different. According to Simmons et al 2007, defines that integration is “where the child must adapt to its schools, and there will be no assumption that the school will be able to help”.

As you can see, in the table above it explains the difference of how inclusion and integration works. This shows that inclusion emphasis on the children whereas, integration does not. Yet at the same time both terms are there for the beneficial of children with SEN. This is causing issues on which to follow.

According to Ainscow et al. (2006), informs us that the definition of inclusion is not clearly defined. This is also supported by Topping and Maloney (2005), who also argue that inclusion in its broadest sense refers to the acceptance of all individual in the society by accepting and respecting those who made positive contribution.

However, it seems that there is not a clear definition on the term inclusion as different theories have different ideas. Nutbrown and Clough (2006, p12) explains that “Inclusion is an approach to education and childcare according to inclusive values rather than a concern with particular group of children and young people.”

Also a similar approach to them is done by Simone Aspis 2004, who explains that Inclusive education should create opportunities for all learners to work together. It requires recognition that learning in enhanced when individuals of different abilities, skills and aspiration can work together in a joint enterprise. (Aspis, 2004 p129)

According to Darlington 2003 believes that inclusion is defined as a process and not a state, that inclusion in not very simple concept restricted to issues of placement… key principles are valuing diversity, entitlement individual needs and equal opportunities. (Darlington 2003 p3)

Yet a different approach by Mittler 2000, defines that inclusion requires the transformation of learning context: where it involves a process of reform and reshaping of the whole school as whole.

Another definition of inclusion is from Florida University 2002, who also give an understanding to inclusion, although it is taken from Florida University and that the states have different meaning, this one was similar to the ones that the UK uses.

Inclusion is an effort to make sure students with disabilities go to school along with their friends and neighbours while also receiving whatever, “Specially designed instruction and support” they need to achieve high standards and succeed as learners.


Another approach to inclusion is from autism independent 2006, which also have the same approach towards inclusion that the other authors have had. And also they have similar ideas that have been focus on as they too have a definition of what they believe.

“Inclusion is a term coined to describe the philosophical argument that children with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps are entitled to an education within the mainstream of public education.”


Yet in contrast to inclusion integration as stated earlier on is different to inclusion. According to Open University 2010, who has an article relating to integration they explain that,

Integration’ was a term used by organizations such as CSIE (originally called the Centre for Studies in Integration in Education) when seeking neighbourhood placements for all students, and implied the need for a student to adapt to the school, rather than for the school to transform its own practices. (http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=397669&section=1.3.3)

In conclusion, it seems that there are no clear definitions in what the term Inclusion means, as different authors have a different meaning. Although most of them have similar thoughts to what they have said that inclusion is there to help children or individual with special needs. All of the author’s acknowledge that the Childs needs come first, and that society should try to accommodate them and try to make them feel wanted. Similar to the social model of disability that society should try to make them feel part of the society and not outcast them. Whereas integration is similar to the medical model of disability where they have acknowledge that the child has a needs and have labelled them that they need help and do nothing to encourage them. This is also supported by Dennis and Gardner who also stated that Inclusion and Integration are similar to the social and medical models. (ibid)