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Before formulating the right strategy on leadership development in the Malaysian Army, there is a need do external analysis on environmental of Malaysia and comparative analysis on US and Singapore Army Leadership Development and the current Leadership Development in the Malaysian Army. Then the internal analysis on Malaysian Army Leadership Development on its organizational structure, vision, mission, roles and tasks and its Leadership Development efficiency has been conducted. From the finding on the external analysis of Malaysian environment there are some factors that affects Leadership Development Program in the Malaysian Army either political, economy, security, technology and government budget. These factors will shape the strategic direction of the Malaysian Army on its Leadership Development and to ensure that its leaders could adapt the challenging and demanding changes of the Malaysian environment to fulfill its roles and tasks especially on its expanding tasks and to keep it’s still relevant from the public perception. In term of the political factors, there are certain programs and initiatives that should be considered for the Leadership Development in the Malaysian Army such as Defense Policy formulated by the government, expanding roles on managing National Service Training Program, participation in NBOS, involvement in UN missions and involvement in promotion of LIMA and DSA. Therefore, Leadership Development Programs should include these additional tasks to ensure the leaders understand the requirement to fulfill these tasks. Leadership Development also could be developed through National Defense University by providing the serving officers the opportunity for self-education. Technical capabilities of the officers could be enhanced by active participation in defense industries to keep pace with the changing technology. The government also recognized the need for talented Army officers to develop the country and to achieve the Vision 2020 by appointment as minister in the cabinet, chairman or president in Government Link Company (GLC) and also as High Commissioner or Ambassador which was happening before. In term of economy, it will affected the Malaysian Army in attracting talented people, retention and also its defense budget, salary and compensation.

106. For the external analysis, in order to benchmark for the best practice on the Leadership Development for the Army, the finding on comparative study on Leadership Development in US Army as a well developed Army and Singapore Army as neighbouring country of Malaysia has been conducted. The finding on the comparative analysis has shown that their macro environment in term of political, economy, security, technology and government budget has shaped their army and their macro environment are quite different from Malaysian Army. The US and Singapore Army Leadership Development Model and Process are based on their defence policy where their policy is well defined and make it easy for their army to develop the right strategy, commitment of the Government to build-up capable army which fully supported by their government, Army vision, mission and objectives that will generate the right strategy for their Leadership Development Model and Process, Army roles and tasks that are based on their vision, mission and objectives, allocation of defence budget where very high and will support their Army development programs, They also could attract talented people to join the army because of their good image and professionalism, public perception on the Army is very good and their Leadership Development Process will be tailored to their Leadership Development Model.

107. Based on the external analysis on the benchmark of Leadership Development in US and Singapore Army, there are some unique capabilities that could make a Leadership Development successful such as commitment by the Government to enhance Leadership Development, high budget allocation, the existence of defence universities, inter-agency/department co-operation with the Army, well defined public perception towards the Army, the need for Army officers to be well rounded and knowledgeable officers that could cope up any security situation challenges that arise, expanding roles of the Army especially in secondary roles on developing the nation to be addressed by the Army through their Leadership Development Programs to enhance the officers’ ability and capability to do these expanding roles, utilizing the technology better that could have significant advantages against its adversary, the Army of multiple skills and capability, the existence of Centre of Leadership Development, the need of systematic and continuous training and education of the officer, commitment by all domains in Leadership Development, joint services integration of the Armed Forces, intellectual Army officers, multiple skills of Army officers, enhance the value of Army officers, efficiency and aggressive marketing and talented people attracted to join the Army. All of these unique capabilities should be considered by the Malaysian Army to come up with the right strategy for its Leadership Development Programs.

108. Compared to Malaysian Army internal analysis, its Leadership Development model is also based on Malaysian Defence Policy but the policy is not well defined and therefore the Army could not develop the right strategy for its leadership development. However, the Malaysian government is also committed to build-up capable Army that could perform its roles and tasks in defending the country from external threats though its General Defence Policy. The Malaysian Army also has vision, mission, objectives, roles and tasks that will generate the right strategy for their Leadership Development Model and Process. Allocation of Defence Budget is lower compared to US and Singapore Army and could hinder Malaysian Army modernization and development programs. Malaysian Army as profession could not attract talented people to join the Army because sceptical public perception on the Army even it has good image and professionalism since the public think that the military is just wasting the Government money without any real external threats.

109. In term of comparison on Leadership Development Mission, Goal, Model and Programs in the US, Singapore and Malaysian Army as mentioned before, there are a set of criteria that have been analysed; Defence Policy, commitment of the government to build-up capable army, Army vision, mission and objectives, Army roles and tasks, allocation of defence budget, attraction to talented people to join the army, public perception on the Army, Leadership Development Model and Leadership Development Process. After analysing the comparison, The US and Singapore Army Leadership Development Model are based their defence policy same as Malaysian Army. Their governments are committed to build-up capable army especially on modernizing and developing their Army through high defence budget compared to Malaysian Defence Budget which is lower. US, Singapore and Malaysian Army have their own vision, mission and objectives that will generate the right strategy for their Leadership Development Model and Process based on the defence policy. All the Army has roles and tasks that are based on their vision, mission and objectives. All Army has their own Leadership Development Model and Process is quite similar.

110. The summary of comparison between US, Singapore and Malaysian Army is shown in Table 5.

Criteria