WHAT EXACTLY RECESSION IS
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time. During recessions, many macroeconomic indicators vary in a similar way. Production as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household incomes, business profits and inflation all fall during recessions; while bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise.
Recessions are generally believed to be caused by a widespread drop in spending. Governments usually respond to recessions by adopting expansionary macroeconomic policies, such as increasing money supply, increasing government spending and decreasing taxation.
ABOUT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training is an act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Its purpose is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs better. Training is necessary for the newly appointed employees and it’s equally necessary for the old employee whenever new machines or new technology is introduced in the job. Training is a continuous process. Development is career-centered in nature. All development is self- development. The executive has to be internally motivated for self- development although the terms training and development are used interchangeably and often used together, there are some differences between the two.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
There is a difference between terms – Training and Development. Training means learning skills and knowledge for doing a particular job. It increases job skills. The term training is generally used to denote imparting specific skills among operative workers and employees. Training is concerned with maintaining and improving current job performance. Thus, it has a short term perspective. Training is job-centered in Nature. The role of trainer or supervisor is very important in training. Development means the growth of an employee in all respects. It shapes attitudes. The term development is associated with the overall growth of the executives and managers. Executive development seeks to develop competence and skills for future performance. Thus, it has a long- term perspective.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees.
When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
To “benchmark” the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
As part of an overall professional development program
As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization
To test, the operation of a new performance management system
To train about a specific topic
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Is There a Gap?
Select the Trainees
Select the Training Methods and Mode
Choose a Means of Evaluating
Evaluate the Training
METHODS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques. Individual circumstances and the “who,” “what” and “why” of your training program determine which method to use.
On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include
internships and assistantships
job rotation and coaching.
Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
The company’s history and mission.
The key members in the organization.
The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company.
Personnel rules and regulations.
Verbal presentations Some companies use this method while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment.
Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences.
Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training.
Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it’s played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences.
Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do.
Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills.
Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel.
Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses.
Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses
Off-the-job techniques include
television conferences or discussions
programmed instruction and laboratory training.
COMPANIES TO BE ANALYSED IN TERMS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES:
Wipro Limited (BSE: 507685, NYSE: WIT) is an information technology services corporation headquartered in Bangalore, India. According to the 2008-09 revenue, Wipro is one of the largest IT services company in India and employs more than 112,925 people worldwide as of June 2010. It has interests varying from information technology, consumer care, lighting, engineering and healthcare businesses. Azim Premji is the Chairman of the board.
Infosys (BSE: 500209, NASDAQ: INFY) is an information technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. Infosys is one of the largest IT companies in India with 114,822 employees (including subsidiaries) as of 2010. It has offices in 30 countries and development centres in India, China, Australia, UK, Canada and Japan.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN WIPRO BEFORE RECESSION
Training about Product Implementation and Development
About Integration, Maintenance and Production support services
Product, Process, Domain and Technology Trainings
ERP and Non ERP Application Training Rollout
Rapid Content Development Solutions
Assessment and Certification
About Change Management
Wipro got following awards for its training and development programme in year 2004-2007
Winner of American Society for Training and Development BEST award for four consecutive years – 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007
Dale Carnegie Leadership Award in the year 2007
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN INFOSYS BEFORE RECESSION
orientation to company processes and practices.
About product features and applications
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN WIPRO DURING RECESSION
Encore: A basket of nonmonetory rewards given to motivate employees
Communicating with the employees: Don’t leave your employees in the dark with regards to the company’s current situation and prospects. Few things turn people off like the feeling that they are being left out. If you trust them with the truth, they will trust you in turn.
Training based on requirement’
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN INFOSYS DURING RECESSION
Internship: New employees are directly given i=on the job training by assigning a mentor
Technological up to date:
About change management
AT PRESENT TIME
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN WIPRO AT PRESENT TIME:
Wipro can develop customized, interactive and engaging content to meet its employees training needs. Wipro develop learning content for a wide range of delivery methods
Blended training solutions
The custom content development services of wipro provide a very wide range of training practices backed by their strength in Instructional Design and pedagogy. And these training methods include
Training for New Hires
Technology and Domain Training
Soft Skills Training
Wipro also provide content conversion and rapid content development solutions that will meet the varied requirements of the organization.
Wipro believe in implementing the right learning pedagogy using customizable frameworks and assign an optimized mix of offshore-onsite development teams to develop these solutions.
OTHER TRAINING METHODS THAT WIPRO IS USING
e mobile based learning
learning nuggets on Outlook
gaming and virtual worlds.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN INFOSYS AT PRESENT TIME:
In Infosys all engineering trainees (people hired straight off campus) undergo a 52-day initial learning programme, which is a combination of technical learning, soft skills development and orientation to company processes and practices.
Technical training by Education & Research department:
We have an entry-level technical training program, which is for a duration of 14 weeks. This program has been certified by educationists as being equivalent to a BS program in the US. The Education & Research (E&R) department at Infosys offers a variety of training programs on a regular basis for Middle level employees as well.
Quality Process Training:
Infosys has a strong focus on quality processes and methodologies. This training is tailored to the role that one is playing ie. Software Engineer, Programmer Analyst, Project Managers etc
Personal Effectiveness and Managerial Programs:
Programs to enhance the managerial capabilities and leadership abilities, to enable better customer satisfaction, achieve organizational vision and create high performing multicultural teams.
ILI: The Infosys Leadership System:
The Infosys Leadership System (ILS) and the Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI) address the issue of sustained growth in general and creates a formal and committed system for developing leadership capabilities in Infoscions.
The most significant attribute of the Infosys leadership development model is its partnership approach with the other groups in Infosys and the ownership of the entire process by the top management in what is termed as the ‘Internal Synergy Model’. ILI is based at a world-class physical infrastructure, in Mysore, India
ISSUES THAT CAN BE RESOLVED AT THE TIME OF GLOBAL RECESSION
How to increase the falling output
How to reduce cost
How to motivateemployees
How to achieve target
How to increase falling share price
How to increase the consumer confidence so that he can spend money to buy the services of the company.
SOLUTION TO THE ABOVE ISSUES/PROBLEMS
Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals.
TIPS FOR EMPLOYEES TO SURVIVE IN THE RECESSION
1) Upgrade Your Skills – Make a Strong Profile
Unless you are multi skilled, it is going to be difficult for us to survive in the emerging context. When you are out of a project, take that as a boon period to upgrade your skills. Be in testing released certifications like ISTQB, CSTE, CSQA or tools related certifications like AIS, ASE or domain related certifications in Insurance, Banking or telecom is going to help you to improve your profile.
2) Learn to Manage Stress
One more critical skill, which we need to learn, is stress management. As we move on, we will get more work related pressure and this will “improve” further due to the cost cutting and operating margin pressure on the IT companies.
3) Be Always Ready to Face Challenges
Every other day, you can see news of IT firms downsizing employees. This is hard reality in countries like India where job security is associated with the work life. It is not the question of you being a performer or non-performer, but the question of available business and required resources.
One should not get de-motivated or depressed by these events in life. In western countries, job hoping is a regular feature in life cycle but in India we are yet to get accosted to this. If you happen to face this, take it bravely and face the challenges. Cross skill will help you during this time.
If you can’t guarantee people’s jobs and you have to let some of them go, make an effort to help them along: free training, introductions to job agencies, recommendations to other companies that may be hiring. This is going to motivate those who are staying, because they will see you as an employer who cares and goes the extra mile, even in a bad situation.
TRAINING METHODS THAT CAN BE USEFUL IN RECESSION PERIOD
Training methods that are useful in recession period is on the job method because it reduces cost and also reduce the training time and employee can directly learn by persuing his job so it will be beneficial for the organization to use on the job methods. Comapnies can use training methods like
internships and assistantships
job rotation and coaching
Training also improves employee loyalty. It shows your employees that you are investing in them – that you believe in them – and they will return the favor. When you provide training, your employees’ morale and confidence are elevated. When employee morale is up, the work environment is better, fewer errors are made and more work is accomplished. The other useful training methods are as following:
webinars and podcasts: these are free. Most cost less than off-site conferences. In addition, there are no travel expenses or time away from the office to incur with e-learning.
E-learning allows your employees to build their skills – from the convenience of their home or office and often whenever they choose. It gives them ultimate flexibility.
Employees motivation: should motivate the employees so that they can do their work more efficiently.
Time management: they should tell about the time management so that they can do more work in less time and there can be more productivity that can reduce total cost.
Stress management: They should be given some classes to tell them how to be stress free and how to do their work without burden or should be given some refreshments so that they can be stress free.
With the global economic recession, you may have to make drastic changes to stay afloat. However, keep in mind that employee training is still very important and can be cost-effective. The long-term results of investing in your employees during this time are immeasurable.
After analysing all the training methods of wipro and infosys during recession, before recession and after recession period we come to know the following main findings
The training methods were different before recession in both wipro and infosys. Companies use to give training to employees in term of technology mainly but not give more attention to behavioural or soft skills.
Product application knowledge
And at the time of recession companies reduce its investment for training purposes and employees were given training only for the important things. Companies pay less money in training during recession. And employees were given training as per their needs or training so as to survive in recession period that is
how to reduce cost
How to increase productivity
How to keep customers happy
How to increase market share
And now at present after the recession the companies are again paying more effencies to training needs of the employees. Now the employees are trained in terms of good interpersonal skills,
Quality process training