Managing the resources like Information Technology, Telecommunications and Network Management is same as like building a home. The more work you take part and the more work you have to be finished. The people who are destroying cannot fix the works of plumbing and electrical works. So you should go for contractor to direct, watch and manage the whole project.
The above condition is same for the IT Organizations. So, the Organization must have a contractor or supervisor to manage all its management functions within it. The contractors or supervisors to manage the network management functions within Organization are FCAPS and ITIL (Information Technology Management).
This paper mainly explains about the frameworks or models FCAPS and ITIL, their Life cycles and also their reliable services and also explained briefly about the TMN Model. The Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security managements are commonly known as FCAPS. FCAPS is a model but not a product and it is developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and FCAPS is migrating it’s managements from reactive state to proactive state. And also explains detailed description about Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and their reliable services. ITIL provided services for the IT organisations to meet their business requirement needs and goals and it has set of best practices for managing IT Service Management. IT plays very important role in the organization’s business processes. ITIL put the organisation’s business process goals in a place and providing measurement process for those goals.
However there are lot of confusions in the IT Organizations about these frameworks (FCAPS and ITIL). Some of the professional think that they are alternate approaches to reach the same goal. But some other professionals think that they are mutually exclusive. There are lot more confusions and comparisons about these frameworks. But now many of the IT Organizations are adopting ITIL because of greater flexibilities of their services.
FCAPS, ITIL, ITIL Services and Information Technology Service Management (ITSM), TMN, ITU.
The network management is used to maintain the large number of networks, and those are often in the areas such as telecommunications and computers. The network management is mainly executes the functions such as security, deployment, monitoring, controlling, allocating, coordination and planning.
Why Network Management Models?
The network management is very complicate to implement. So, in order to work the total network management perfectly we are breaking down network functions into the smaller chunks. By implementing these smaller chunks we can get the total management of the networks. For implementing all the network management functions we are using the network models. Those are
TMN (Telecommunications Management Network)
FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security Management)
ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)
All these models mainly involved in the business management in IT (Information Technology) organization and providing reliable or robust information infrastructure services to it is a main criteria of the network models. Many multinational companies considering these network models in top 10 position but they are not giving top position. But the interesting thing is that some of the companies are not giving priority for these network Models for their business management. So, by this effect the companies are providing their services to customers below 20% and also the delivered products also not working more than 3 years. So the companies need to follow the Network Models for providing robust and reliable services to the clients and employees.
FCAPS Model is running efficiently with TMN layer but more is needed from this or extra version of this model. And below explained more details about the network models.
TMN (Telecommunications Management Network) Model:
TMN is Telecommunication Management Network. The standard model was first developed by ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union- Telecommunications) in the year of 1993 and was updated in the year 1996. ITU-T recommended this model as a framework where service providers provide their services to deliver to the networks. It has provided layered architecture for different levels of abstraction. The layered architecture as below
BML-Business Management Layer
SML-Service Management Layer
NML-Network Management Layer
EML-Element Management Layer
The above layered architecture is the TMN logical layered architecture. By using this layered model architecture we can understand clearly how the IT Services depend on the network layers for their business needs and for better performance.
FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security) Model:
FCAPS was developed by the ITU-T in addition to the TMN layered architecture in the year of 1997. FCAPS is a model but not a product. The ITU-T initially developed this model for assisting how to manage telecommunication networks. It was also an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) model for the network management. The FCAPS framework is also called as Open System Interconnect (OSI) Network Management Model for network management implementations. This works based on TMN Layer and performs their functionality at each and every stage of TMN architecture layer.
FCAPS Management: The Standard Model
FCAPS management depends on OSI (Open System Interconnect). The OSI specifies five key areas which are under the FCAPS model. Those are Fault Management, Configuration Management, Accounting Management, Performance Management, and Security Management.
C- Configuration Management
A- Accounting Management
P- Performance Management
S- Security Management
Fault Management (F):
In this functional area it is used as analysis of alarms and faults in the network. The network has ability to identify and isolate problems and providing information to appropriate person whom to deal with the problems. In this the network is always in a running status and the downtime is minimized. The Fault management is the well known area of the network management.
More Functionalities of Fault Management are: Fault detection, clear correction, fault correction, network recovery, fault isolation, alarm handling, alarm filtering, alarm generation, diagnostic test, error logging, error handling and error statistics.
EX: CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) – Device Fault Manager (DFM).
CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) — Device Centre for troubleshooting.
Configuration Management (C):
In the configuration management functional area the network is controlled and monitored and maintaining the status of the networks. Installing new components against the old components and maintained carefully by managing, recording and performing. In this area the main operations are routing tables, Service set identifier assignment, IP addressing scheme and maintain the information on the devices. One of the most important things a network manager can maintain a good network health by managing the device configurations.
More functionalities of Configuration Management are: Resource initialization, network provisioning, auto discovery, backup and restore, resource shut down, change management, pre-provisioning, inventory management, copy configuration, remote configuration, job initiation and automated software distribution.
EX: CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) – Resource Manager Essential (RME).
LMS – Campus Manager.
LMS – Cisco View.
Accounting Management (A):
The accounting management level is also called as allocation level. In this the network manager gathers the user usage statistics and allocation of costs associated with the bills per time and providing services by the devices. One more privilege of accounting management is that allows actions of users and better use of available resources.
More functionalities of accounting management are: supporting for different modes of accounting, audits, set quotes for usage, tracking the service, cost of the service, accounting limit, combine cost for more devices, fraud reporting.
EX: Cisco Access Control Server (ACS) combined with LMS (LAN Management Solution) and NCM (Network Configuration Management).
Performance Management (P):
The performance of the networks depends upon the quality of networks and system statistics (Configurations). For better performance, the network collects the data, maintaining the proper utilization of data, free from errors, maintaining the response time when the data is tracked and finally availability of data. Performance management is as simple as monitoring CPU and also as complex as end to end application monitoring.
More functionalities of Performance Management are: consistent performance level, performance data generation, and problem reporting, performance data collection, and static collection, performance data analysis, capacity planning and examining historical logs.
EX: CiscoWorks LMS (LAN Management Solution) – Internet Performance Monitor (IPM).
LMS: Device Fault Manager (DFM).
Security Management (S):
The Security Management functional area defines the process and procedures for network security by protecting the network from hackers and unauthorised users. We should have to hide the information to the unknown users possibly. The network administrator can control individual user what he can do and what he cannot do with the system.
More functionalities of Security Management are: resource access, data privacy, access logs, enable NE functions, user access rights checking, security alarm for event reporting, takes care of security, security audit trail log and security related information distribution.
EX: Cisco Access Control Server (ACS). LMS depends on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and other security Audits.
Where does FCAPS fit?
All the managements under the FCAPS are applicable to manage the applications. But managing the application is not same that managing a network. The applications have a set of problems that are affected by the network.
EX: VoIP Management using FCAPS
FCAPS model is applicable for the life cycle of VoIP / IPT (Voice over Internet Protocol / information Protocol Telephony). But don’t think this model is only applicable for the VoIP. VoIP is a application but not a network. This is also applicable in four stages of IT project life cycle. Those are planning, designing, deployment and in operational.
FCAPS on other IT Services:
For all key factors of FCAPS framework has provided extended functionalities. The extended functionalities of FCAPS also called as ITEF (Information Technology Extended Framework). The functionalities provided in the FCAPS are developed independent of operating system and any application type. Those functionalities can work in any operating system, any applications types and support for different types of IT services.
The extended functionalities for FCAPS on IT services are like a tree view structure so the consumer easily navigate to detailed level if he needed. The structure of FCAPS functionalities are given below.
The extended functionalities provided by the FCAPS are used in different types of organizations particularly for the IT Services. The IT service document mainly describes the category of coverage and individual services described in the IT management.
EX: Change Management in Configuration Management:
The change management is the extended functionality under the configuration management. It is for the authorizing, recording, monitoring and reporting all the services to the Open System environment. The primary responsibilities provided in the change management system are
Auditable mechanism for handling all changes within the integrated management system.
Review process for all authorising changes.
Process for all changes tested and validated.
Creating a mechanism for review change for not authorised from the change management process.
ITSM (Information Technology Service Model):
The IT Service Model is providing very important roles for the ITEF (Information Technology Extended Framework). The main structure of IT Service Model as below