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by | Jun 18, 2022 | Questions & Answers

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The paper should be at least twelve full double-spaced pages long. See the “Essay Expectations” handout for further details, and feel free to ask questions.

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Rather than giving you a list of topics to choose from, I would like you to pick a topic of your own. Find something that you’re interested in and would like to explore in greater depth and then talk to me about it (the sooner you get started the better). If it’s a reasonable topic (in terms of relevance, difficulty, and length), I’ll let you do it. (See below for details of the written proposal). Here are a few general types of paper that you might consider; these are starting points rather than limitations.

First, the authors we’re reading often criticize one another. Build a paper around one of these criticisms. Be sure that you argue convincingly that one of the authors makes a better argument or reaches a more desirable conclusion than the other, or that there is a particular reason why their answers differ, or that there is something at stake in the argument that isn’t obvious. Please do not just do a “compare/contrast” paper. Which of the similarities and differences are important, and why?

Second, pick an argument made in one of the books we’ve read and criticize it. Where is it inconsistent with other things that author has said? Where does it rest on assumptions that aren’t true? Where would it seem to lead to conclusions that are unacceptable? Other types of criticism, supported by research, are also possible.

Third, you can discuss why an author makes some topic central that doesn’t seem to have much to do with politics, or overlooks a topic that would seem to be absolutely vital to politics. “Politics” is hard to define; many things can be included, and different authors include different things. So discuss why an author includes some things and not others.

Fourth, you can raise a larger question or issue that requires you to discuss several authors. For example, you might ask “According to X and Y, what role do women have in politics? What does this tell us about the nature of politics for these thinkers?” Again, do not just compare and contrast authors X and Y but draw some conclusions from the similarities and differences.

Above all, be sure to interpret and comment on the author(s) you’re writing about rather than just repeating what they have said. For example, rather than just saying “Aristotle describes virtue in the following way,” say something like “Aristotle’s description of virtue, while thoughtful, is inadequate in the following ways” or “Aristotle’s description of virtue raises important questions about whether modern politics can possibly improve citizens in any meaningful way.”

Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Human Rights
I. Introduction
How has Political Philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke contributed to the development and fundamental concepts of human rights? This question is the main purpose of this research paper. The researcher will be conducting analytical research to collect information and new perspectives as to how Hobbes and Locke impacted the future of human rights. The following sections will provide a literature review, intended methodology, and significant sources. Topics that contribute to this question and topic that are to be researched and considered are natural right and natural law theories, and several dependent variables.
In today?s world, some form of human rights seems to be the center of publications, political debate, and public discourse. The forms of human rights may center around race, gender, religion, or disability rights, all of which are key aspects of human right development and advocacy on an international level. Although human rights have become a primary focus internationally, it is still questionable what the fundamentals of human rights are, as well as who and what contributors have impacted today’s scope of human rights in a variety of communities. Furthermore, it is vital to understand why human rights are important. Human rights are the relationships that are built between individuals, communities, and the government in which holds control or power over them. However, the amount and extent of control and power a government has over individuals and communities is another fundamental aspect of human rights. The limited and guided governmental power is regulated to protect the basic needs and freedoms of people. Regardless of the basic principles and positive intent, not always is the basic needs, and freedoms of people all treated the same in which is why human rights have become so important to many individuals.
II. Literature Review
The following paragraphs discuss three journal articles that will be utilized during this research paper. The purpose of these reviews is to provide examples of source selections and their significance. .Providing that there is a review of only three sources the completed paper will analyze and utilize a minimum of fifteen sources.
a. Toward a Political Philosophy of Information by Kay Mathiesen
This article contributes to researching how political philosophers have contributed to modern human rights. One of the key points that has been found to be interesting, as well as one that can be applied to many theories involving political philosophy and its development regardless of its concentration is that we as humans are judgmental humans (Mathiesen, 2015). Mathiesen expresses this theory based on Aristotle saying that we are rational animals, which she does not necessarily argue but points out that we are judging animals (Mathiesen, 2015). The reason I feel that this key point is significant to my research topic and paper is that the need for human rights and protection of humans who may be classified rather it be due to a disability, race, or gender is due to being judges by judgmental animals. With understanding, human ethics from modern and historical aspects may provide a different aspect of human rights and how they have evolved.
b. Natural Law and Natural Rights Old Problems and Recent approaches by Brian Tierney
This article is a significant source of information that will be used in this research paper to provide a clearer understanding of natural law and natural right. However, this article provides arguments that still arise from the origins of Hobbes and Locke?s philosophies. The arguments will visit several theories such as if natural law and natural rights complement each other if natural laws can exist without natural rights, and where natural law and natural rights are derived from. This article is significant due to the acknowledgment that natural rights and natural law may have been aspects of human rights emerging and evolving over time. Furthermore, understanding how these theories correlate with human rights also provides insight as to how political philosophers like Hobbes and Locke had contributed to human rights.
c. Development, Human Rights, and Law by John O?Manique
This journal publication is a significant source to be utilized within this research due to it is in-depth information regarding natural law and positivist that may be traced back to Thomas Hobbes and preliminary human rights. In fact, O?Manique states that the positivist approach to law and rights reflect Hobbes vision on the world (O?Manique, 1992). Additionally, this article also discusses the meaning and interpretation of a moral system which is essential to human rights. Human rights are tested daily by judgmental individuals and groups in hopes that a moral system will create justice and equality for everyone. However, it is unfortunate that there are times of systems evolving in a negative way which misguides public trust, beliefs, and values. This information will support how positive pathways, and political trust can provide sustenance to human rights.
III. Research Design and Methodology
To understand how political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke had contributed to the theories and development of human rights in today?s societies it is necessary to conduct a qualitative study. A qualitative study is a methodology in which will consists of many different tools to obtain the necessary research needed to support the theories discussed within this document. A thorough historical research and intensive documental analysis of supporting research will be a fundamental contribution to understanding how political philosophies have contributed and helped the development of human rights.
The main methods used by the researcher will consist of historical research and document analysis. The selected methodological design is intended to collect extensive descriptive data. The background, development, current conditions, and environmental interactions of social groups and communities will be observed and analyzed to acquire a better understanding of the development of human rights based upon political philosophy contributions. However, to achieve the intended goal the researcher will find it vital to utilize university libraries, scholarly journals, published books, and internet publications. The persistence of research and understanding the treatment, policies and regulations regarding human rights is vital to continuously evolve to provide communities which are striving to achieve the best interests of everyone. In doing so, it is imperative that research and studies be continuous and should be conducted on several aspects that contribute to human rights.
IV. Conclusion
The previous sections provided has provided a brief outline of a projected research paper seeking to obtain more knowledge as to how political philosophers have contributed to human rights. Human rights have become an important topic to fight for and study, however understanding how Hobbes and Locke?s theories had helped develop human rights may become vital to continue future development. None the less, Hobbes and Locke?s theories test modern theories while providing solid arguments. However, the research paper will provide a significant amount of detail, a minimum of fifteen sources in contrast to this outline. Upon finishing the research proposal, the researchers believe their proposition will consist of understanding theoretical contributions yet, still find solid arguments are contesting their theories.


Boucher, D. (2009). The Limits of Ethics in International Relations: Natural Law, Natural
Rights, and Human Rights in Transition. Retrieved from http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=472065

Freeman, M. (1994). The Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 16(3), 491-514. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/762434

Frohnen, Bruce P., and Grasso, Kenneth L., eds. ERIC VOEGELIN INST SERIES: Rethinking Rights : Historical, Political, and Philosophical Perspectives. Columbia, US: University of Missouri, 2009. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 17 November 2016.

TRADITION. Retrieved from http://www.nlnrac.org/earlymodern/locke

MODERN NATURAL RIGHTS. Retrieved from http://www.nlnrac.org/earlymodern/hobbes

Mathiesen, K. (2015, Winter). Toward a Political Philosophy of Information. Library
Trends, 63(3), 427-447. doi:10.1353/lib.2015.0000?

O’Manique, J. (1992). Development, Human Rights and Law. Human Rights Quarterly, 14(3), 383. doi:10.2307/762372

Tierney, Brian. ?Natural Law and Natural Rights Old Problems and Recent Approaches.? The Review of Politics, vol. 64, no. 3, 2002, pp. 389?406. www.jstor.org/stable/1408903.


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